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Iron and Steel Making

LAND have supplied the Iron and Steel making industries and OEM's throughout the world with temperature measuring equipment for over 50 years. All their products are designed to the highest standards of quality and reliability to ensure accurate measurements under plant operating conditions.

The schematic diagrams illustrate typical features of an iron and steel works where non contact temperature systems can be used. The areas highlighted show measurement reference points, where LAND's infrared thermometry know-how can really benefit you. If your specific area of concern is not covered here, our engineers will be pleased to discuss your requirements with you.

Soaking Pit - Load Temperature

The heating of the soaking pit is controlled using temperature measurements made at the end wall. Knowledge of the pit temperature and necessary soaking times can ensure that ingots leave the soaking pit at the correct temperature

A Cyclops 100 portable thermometer can be used to periodically check both pit and ingot temperatures.

Land Instruments recommends:

Coke Oven Flue

Temperature measurement of the Coke Oven Flue provides vital information on the condition and efficiency of the oven battery. The life of the oven, the quality and quantity of the throughput are all related to the balance and temperature levels in the heating chambers.

Coke Oven Profile

Efficient operation of coke ovens is dependent on flue temperatures and temperature profile. A direct measurement of oven wall temperatures is most beneficial and can now be achieved by utilizing specially designed Fibroptic radiation thermometers, complete with light guides up to 33 meters/108 feet in length, installed at various positions on the pusher arm. The thermometers track across the length of both walls of the oven as it is pushed to produce a complete temperature profile.

Land Instruments recommends:

Coke Oven Burden

An extremely efficient, automated method of obtaining the Coke Oven Heating Profile is to measure the temperature of the coke burden as it is pushed from the oven. The oven profile can then be inferred from the temperature of the coke.

Land Instruments recommends:

Coke Conveyor

Monitoring the coke on the conveyor helps to prevent over and under quenching and provides coke conveyor protection so that it can be safely transported to the blast furnace without the risk of reigniting and damaging the conveyor belt, with the consequent loss of production.

Land Instruments recommends:

Hot Blast Stove

Hot Blast Stove operation is optimised, best performance versus life. Monitoring the temperature of the refractories safeguards against damage and maximizes the production rate of blast furnace iron.

Land Instruments recommends:

Hot Blast Main

The temperature of the gases passed through the Hot Blast Main significantly affects the efficiency of the blast furnace operation. Gas temperature, inferred from a target block, provides continuous on-line data on the furnace campaign.

Land Instruments recommends:

Blast Furnace Burden

Measurement of Blast Furnace Burden temperatures provides information on patterns of blast furnace behaviour. It is a useful research tool in support of mathematical modeling.

Land Instruments recommends:

Liquid Iron Stream

A continuous record of liquid iron temperatures is required during the tapping cycle. It provides an indication of furnace operation and can be used for a rapid estimate of silicon content.

Land Instruments recommends:

Torpedo Car

The Torpedo car is internally lined with protective refractory bricks. During continuous use the refractories can wear extremely thin and heat from the liquid metal may cause a breakout. Continuous temperature scanning of the outer shell minimizes damage and maximizes efficiency, by detecting hotspots and failing refractory linings.

Land Instruments recommends:

Ladle Pre Heat

Ladles are pre heated in order to avoid damage to the refractories by thermal shock from the molten metal. A fixed process imager can be mounted to continuously monitor the temperature of the refractory lining during the pre heat process, to ensure the the condition of the refractory is not deteriorating.

Land Instruments recommends:


Maintenance of the refractory lining is a significant contribution to the cost of steel production. Monitoring the external temperature pattern of ladles using a thermal imager allows the extent and distribution of wear to be assessed. This information can be used to determine relining strategy and avoid excessive lining damage and breakouts.

Land Instruments recommends:


A thermographic Slag Detection System (SDS) is used to monitor the molten steel as it is poured from the BOS vessel. The SDS produces a thermal image, which readily enables the detection of slag. Although the molten metal and the slag are roughly the same temperature the high emissivity of the slag makes it appear hotter in the image and hence, easily detectable.

Land Instruments recommends:

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